# Research Literature

Research about how younger students learn to reason about data, and how experts approach data differently from ordinary people or novices, has influenced both the design of TinkerPlots and the type of data and activities included with it.

Read an overview of the research (.pdf) that informed the development of TinkerPlots.

Below is a list of research articles that feature, in some way, TinkerPlots. Our hope is to keep this up-to-date. So please let us know of articles that should be on this list.

See also the Statistics Education Research Group (SERG) publication list.

## Last updated: September 9, 2013

Apel, N., Gil, E., & Ben-Zvi, D. (2008, Feb). Using TinkerPlots to develop primary school students' reasoning about informal statistical inference. In Y. Eshet, A. Caspi & N. Geri (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third Annual Chais Conference on Instructional Technologies Research, 1–6. The Open University of Israel. |

Ben-Zvi, D. (2006). Scaffolding students' informal inference and argumentation. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.), Working cooperatively in statistics education: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Salvador, Brazil. [CDROM]. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. [Online: https://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/17/2D1_BENZ.pdf] |

Bakker, A. (2002). Route-type and landscape-type software for learning statistical data analysis. In B. Phillips (Ed.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of Teaching Statistics [CD-ROM]. Voorburg, the Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. |

Bakker, A., & Derry, J. (2011). Lessons from inferentialism for statistics education. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13, 5-26. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10986065.2011.538293 |

Bakker, A., Derry, J., & Konold, C. (2006). Using technology to support diagrammatic reasoning about center and variation. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS) CD-ROM. Salvador, Bahai, Brazil, July 2-7, 2006. |

Bakker, A., & Frederickson, A. (2005). Comparing distributions and growing samples by hand and with a computer tool. In W. J. Masalski (Ed.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environments: Sixty-seventh Yearbook of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (pp. 75-91). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. |

Bakker, A., Kent, P., Noss, R., & Hoyles, C. (2006). Designing statistical learning opportunities for industry. In A. Rossmann & B. Chance (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Salvador, Brazil [CD-ROM] (pp. 1-4). Voorburg, the Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. http://www.fi.uu.nl/~arthur/bakker-icots2006-406.pdf |

Ben-Zvi, D., Gil, E., & Apel, N. (2007). What is hidden beyond the data? Helping young students to reason and argue about some wider universe. In D. Pratt & J. Ainley (Eds.), Reasoning about Informal Inferential Statistical Reasoning: A collection of current research studies. Proceedings of the Fifth International Research Forum on Statistical Reasoning, Thinking, and Literacy (SRTL-5), University of Warwick, UK, August, 2007. |

Ben-Zvi, D., Gil, E., & Apel, N. (2009). Creativity in learning to reason informally about statistical inference in primary school. In R. Leikin, A. Berman & B. Koichu (Eds.), Creativity in mathematics and the education of gifted students (325–344). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. |

Brown, N., Watson, J., & Wright, S. (2011). My favourite ratio – An inquiry about pi. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 67(1), 14-25. |

Brown, N., Watson, J., Wright, S., & Skalicky, J. (2011). A primary classroom inquiry: Estimating the height of a tree. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 16(2), 3-11. |

Chick, H. (2013). Busting myths. Manuscript submitted for publication. |

Cross, D. I., Adefope, O., Rapacki, L., Hudson, R. A., Lee. M. I., & Perez, A. (2012). Success made probable: Creating equitable mathematical experiences through project-based learning. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education, 5(2), 55–86. https://education.gsu.edu/JUME |

Fitzallen, N. (2007). Evaluating data analysis software: The case of TinkerPlots. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 12(1), 23-28. |

Fitzallen, N., E. (2012). Reasoning about covariation with TinkerPlots. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania. [Online: https://eprints.utas.edu.au/14717/] |

Fitzallen, N., & Watson, J. (2010). Developing statistical reasoning facilitated by TinkerPlots. Refereed paper to be presented at the 8th International Conference on the Teaching of Statistics, Ljubljana, Slovenia, July, 2010. [CDRom] Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. |

Fitzallen, N., & Watson, J. (2011). Graph creation and interpretation: Putting skills and context together. In J. Clark, B. Kissane, J. Mousley, T. Spencer, & S. Thornton (Eds.), Mathematics: Traditions and [new] practices (Proceedings of the AAMT/MERGA conferences, pp. 253-260). Adelaide, SA: AAMT and MERGA. |

Friel, S. (2002). Wooden or steal roller coasters: What's the choice? New England Journal of Mathematics, 34, 40-54. |

Garfield, J., & Ben-Zvi, D. (2008). Developing students' statistical reasoning: Connecting research and teaching practice. Springer. (410 pages.) |

Gal, Y., Reddy, S., Shieber, S., Rubin, A., and & Grosz, B., J. (2012). Plan recognition in exploratory domains. Artificial Intelligence Journal, 176(1), 2270-2290. |

Gal, Y., Yamangil, E., Rubin, A., Shieber, S., & Grosz, B., J. (2008). Towards collaborative intelligent tutors: Automated recognition of users' strategies. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Montreal, Quebec. |

Gil, E., & Ben-Zvi, D. (2006). Growing Samples: Exploratory Data Analysis for Fifth Grade Using TinkerPlots – Student's Workbook (Hebrew). Haifa, Israel: University of Haifa. |

Gil, E., & Ben-Zvi, D. (2007). Informal Statistical Inference: Data Analysis for Sixth Grade Using TinkerPlots – Student's Workbook (Hebrew). Haifa, Israel: University of Haifa. |

Gil, E., & Ben-Zvi, D (in press). Explanations and context in the emergence of students' informal inferential reasoning. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13(1). |

Hall, J. (2008). Using Census at School and TinkerPlots to support Ontario elementary teachers; statistics teaching and learning. http://www.ugr.es/~icmi/iase_study/Files/Topic6.htm |

Harradine, A., & Konold, C. (2006). How representational medium affects the data displays students make. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS) CD-ROM. Salvador, Bahai, Brazil, July 2-7, 2006. |

Hoyles, C., Bakker, A., Kent, P., & Noss, R. (2007). Attributing meanings to representations of data: The case of statistical process control. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 9(4), 331-360. |

Hudson, R. A., Cross, D. I., Lee, M. Y., & Rapacki, L. (2012). Learning to tinker. Teaching Children's Mathematics, 18(8), 508-513. |

Ireland, S. (2007). Making connections between concrete objects and abstract concepts: Developing students' understanding of the connection between observed experimental probability outcomes and the associated theoretical probability, aided by computer simulation software. Unpublished Honours dissertation. Hobart: Education Faculty, University of Tasmania. |

Ireland, S., & Watson, J. (2009). Building an understanding of the connection between experimental and theoretical aspects of probability. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 4, 339-370. |

Kazak, S. & Konold, C. (2010). Development of ideas in data and chance through the use of tools provided by computer-based technology. In C. Reading (Ed.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS 8) [CD-ROM]. Ljubljana, Slovenia, 11-16 July 2010. |

Konold, C. (2002). Teaching concepts rather than conventions. New England Journal of Mathematics, 34(2), 69-81. |

Konold, C. (2007). Designing a data tool for learners. In M. Lovett & P. Shah (Eds.), Thinking with data (pp. 267-291). New York: Taylor & Francis. |

Konold, C., & Kazak, S. (2008). Reconnecting data and chance. Technology Innovations in Statistics Education, 2 (1), Article 1. |

Konold, C., & Lehrer, R. (2008). Technology and mathematics education: An essay in honor of Jim Kaput. In L. English (Ed.), Handbook of International Research in Mathematics Education, (2nd edition) (pp.49-72). New York: Routledge. |

Konold, C., & Harradine, A. (2014). Contexts for highlighting signal and noise. In T. Wassong, D. Frischemeier, P. R. Fischer, R. Hochmuth, & P. Bender (Eds.), Mit Werkzeugen Mathematik und Stochastik lernen: Using Tools for Learning Mathematics and Statistics (pp. 237-250). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer. |

Konold, C., Harradine, A., & Kazak, S. (2007). Understanding distributions by modeling them. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 12(3), 217-230. |

Konold, C., Madden, S., Pollatsek, A., Pfannkuck, M., Wild, C., Ziedins, I., Finzer, W., Horton, N. J., & Kazak, S. (2011). Conceptual challenges in coordinating theoretical and data-centered estimates of probability. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13, 68-86. |

Lee, V. R., & DuMont, M. (2010). An exploration into how physical activity data-recording devices could be used in computer-supported data investigations. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 15(3), 167-189. doi: 10.1007/s10758-010-9172-8 |

Lee, V. R., & Thomas, J. M. (2011). Integrating physical activity data technologies into elementary school classrooms. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59(6), 865-884. doi: 10.1007/s11423-011-9210-9 |

Lehrer, R., Kim, M.J., & Schauble, L. (2007). Supporting the development of conceptions of statistics by engaging students in measuring and modeling variability. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 12(3), 195- 216. |

Lehrer, R., Konold, C., & Kim, M.J. (2006 April). Constructing data, modeling chance in structuring variability by negotiating its measure the middle school. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. |

Makar, K., Bakker, A., & Ben-Zvi, D (in press). The Reasoning behind informal statistical inference. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13(1). |

Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M., Paparistodemou, E., & Stylianou, D. (2009). Enhancing Statistics Instruction in Elementary Schools: Integrating Technology in Professional Development. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, 6 (1&2), 57-78. |

Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M., Paparistodemou, E., & Stylianou, D. (2006). Improving the Teaching of Statistics in Early Grades through Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.), Working cooperatively in statistics education: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Salvador, Brazil. [CDROM]. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. [Online: http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/] |

Monteiro, C., Asseker, A., Carvalho, L., & Campos, T. (2010). Student teachers developing their knowledge about data handling using TinkerPlots. Proceedings of ICoTS, 8. [Online: http://icots.net/8/cd/pdfs/invited/ICOTS8_3B1_MONTEIRO.pdf] |

Paparistodemou, E., & Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M. (2008). Developing young students' informal inference skills in data analysis. Statistics Education Research Journal, 7(2), 83–106. http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/serj/SERJ7(2)_Paparistodemou.pdf |

Paparistodemou, E., & Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M. (2010). Engaging young children in informal statistical inference. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. Ljubljana, Slovenia. [Online: https://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/] |

Prodromou, T. (2011). Students' emerging inferential reasoning about samples and sampling. In Clark, J., Kissane, B., Musley, J., Spencer, T. & Thornton, S. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, p. 640-648. Alice Springs, Australia: MERGA36. |

Prodromou, T. (2013). Informal inferential reasoning using a modelling approach within a computer-based simulation. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 78, 1739-1744. |

Reddy, S., Gal Y., & Shieber, S. (2009). Recognition of users' activities using constraint satisfaction. Proceedings of the Seventeenth international conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization. Trento, Italy. |

Rubin, A. (2007). Much has changed; little has changed: Revisiting the role of technology in statistics education 1992-2007. Technology Innovations in Statistics Education, 1(1), Article 6. |

Rubin, A., & Hammerman, J. K. (2006). Understanding data through new software representations. In G. F. Burrill (Ed.), Thinking and reasoning with data and chance: Sixty-eighth NCTM yearbook (pp. 241-256). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. |

Rubin, A., Hammerman, J. K. L., & Konold, C. (2006). Exploring informal inference with interactive visualization software. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.), Working cooperatively in statistics education: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Salvador, Brazil. [CDROM]. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. [Online: http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/ |

Shafer, K. (2012). Teaching Teachers TinkerPlots (v2): Achieving a TPACK Balance. In P. Resta (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2012 (pp. 4881-4885). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. |

Stack, S., & Watson, J. (2013). Randomness, sample size, imagination and metacognition: Making judgments about differences in data sets. Manuscript submitted for publication. |

Wagner, A. (2006). Entwicklung und Förderung von Datenkompetenz in den Klassen 1-6. Kasseler Online-Schriften zur Didaktik der Stochastik (KaDiSto) Bd. 3. Kassel: Universität Kassel [Online: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hebis:34-2006092214690] |

Walsh Jr., T. (2011). Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with The Survey Toolkit and TinkerPlots®. Journal of Statistics Education, 19(1). [Online: https://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v19n1/walsh.pdf] |

Watson, A., Jones, K. & Pratt, D. (in press). Lessons from research: Fundamental Ideas in School Mathematics 9-16. (Working title). OUP. |

Watson, J.M. (2008). Exploring beginning inference with novice grade 7 students. Statistics Education Research Journal, 7(2), 59-82. |

Watson, J. (2008). Eye colour and reaction time: An opportunity for critical statistical reasoning. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 64(3), 30-40. |

Watson, J. (2012). Box plots in the Australian curriculum. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 63(3), 3-11. |

Watson, J.M. (2012). History and statistics: Connections across the curriculum. AGORA (History Teachers' Association of Victoria), 47(3), 58-64. |

Watson, J.M. (2013). Resampling with TinkerPlots. Teaching Statistics, 35(1), 32-36. |

Watson, J.M. (2013). What is ‘typical' for different kinds of data? Top Drawer Teachers. Available at http://topdrawer.aamt.edu.au/Statistics/Downloads |

Watson, J.M. (in press). Statistical literacy, a statistics curriculum for school students, the pedagogical content needs of teachers, and the Australian Curriculum. Curriculum Perspectives. |

Watson, J.M. (in press). TinkerPlots as an interactive tool for learning about resampling. In P. Bender, R. Hochmuth, P. R. Fischer, D. Frischemeier, & T. Wassong (Eds.), Using tools for learning mathematics and statistics. Heidelberg: Springer Spektrum. |

Watson, J., & Beswick, K. (2009). Which is bigger 250 tonnes or 17%: A tale of salt. In C. Hurst, M. Kemp, B. Kissane, L. Sparrow, & T. Spencer (Eds.), Mathematics: It's mine (Proceedings of the 22nd biennial conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers, Inc., Fremantle, pp. 175-184). Adelaide: AAMT, Inc. |

Watson, J., Beswick, K., Brown, N., Callingham, R., Muir, T., & Wright, S. (2011). Digging into Australian data with TinkerPlots. Melbourne: Objective Learning Materials. (374 pp.) [ISBN 978-0-9580025-2-3] |

Watson, J., & Chance, B. (2012). Building intuitions about statistical inference based on resampling. Australian Senior Mathematics Journal, 26(1), 6-18. |

Watson, J., Brown, N., Wright, S., & Skalicky, J. (2011). A middle school classroom inquiry: Estimating the height of a tree. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 67(2), 14-21. |

Watson, J. & Donne, J. (2009). TinkerPlots as a research tool to explore student understanding. Technology Innovations in Statistics Education, 3(1). Article 1. |

Watson, J., & English, L. (2013). Data and measurement in year 4 of the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. In S. Herbert, J. Tillyer, & T. Spencer (Eds.), Mathematics: Launching futures (Proceedings of the 24th biennial conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers, Inc., pp. 157-165). Adelaide: AAMT, Inc. |

Watson, J., & Fitzallen, N. (2010). The development of graph understanding in the mathematics curriculum: Report for the NSW Department of Education and Training. (76 pp.) Sydney: State of New South Wales through the Department of Education and Training. [ISBN 9780731386871] dev_graph_undstdmaths.pdf |

Watson, J. M., Fitzallen, N. E., Wilson, K. G., & Creed, J. F. (2008). The representational value of hats. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 14, 4-10. |

Watson, J., & Neal, D. (2012). Preparing students for decision-making in the 21st century: Statistics and Probability in the Australian Curriculum – Mathematics. In B. Atweh, D. Siemon, R. Jorgensen, & M. Goos (Eds.), Engaging the Australian National Curriculum – Mathematics: Perspectives from the field (pp. 89-113). On-line publication: Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. |

Watson, J., Skalicky, J., Fitzallen, N., & Wright, S. (2009). Licorice production and manufacturing: All-sorts of practical applications for statistics. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 14(3), 4-13. |

Watson, J., & Wright, S. (2008). Building informal inference with TinkerPlots in a measurement context. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 64(4), 31-40. |

Yilmaz, Z. (2013). Usage of Tinker Plots to address and remediate 6th grade students' misconceptions about mean and median. Anthropologist, 16(1-2): 21-29. |

Ziegler, L., & Garfield, J. (2012). Exploring students' intuitive ideas of randomness using an iPod shuffle activity. Teaching Statistics, 35(1), 2–7. |